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Thursday, January 13, 2022

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ENGLISH CONTRACT LAW




RMINATION C VITIATION D FRUSTRATION VI DAMAGES / REMEDIES BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ENGLISH CONTRACT LAW INTRODUCTION This Guide is arranged in the following parts: I Formation of a Contract II Contents of a Contract III The end of a Contract I FORMATION OF A CONTRACT 1. A contract is an agreement giving rise to obligations which are enforced or recognised by law. 2. In common law, there are 3 basic essentials to the creation of a contract: (i) agreement; (ii) contractual intention; and (iii) consideration. 3. The first requisite of a contract is that the parties should have reached agreement. Generally speaking, an agreement is reached when one party makes an offer, which is accepted by another party. In deciding whether the parties have reached agreement, the courts will apply an objective test. A. OFFER 4. An offer is an expression of willingness to contract on specified terms, made with the intention that it is to be binding once accepted by the person to whom it is addressed.1 There must be an objective manifestation of intent by the offeror to be bound by the offer if accepted by the other party. Therefore, the offeror will be bound if his words or conduct are such as to induce a reasonable third party observer to believe that he intends to be bound, even if in fact he has no such intention. This was held to be the case where a university made an offer of a place to an intending student as a result of a clerical error.2 5. An offer can be addressed to a single person, to a specified group of persons, or to the world at large. An example of the latter would be a reward poster for the return of a lost pet. 6. An offer may be made expressly (by words) or by conduct. 7. An offer must be distinguished from an invitation to treat, by which a person does not make an offer but invites another party to do so. Whether a statement is an offer or an invitation to treat depends primarily on the intention with which it is made. An invitation to treat is not made with the intention that it is to be binding as soon as the person to whom it is addressed communicates his assent to its terms. Common examples of 1 Stover v Manchester City Council [1974] 1 WLR 1403. 2 Moran v University College Salford (No 2), The Times, November 23, 1993. invitations to treat include advertisements3 or displays of goods on a shelf in a self-service store.4 8. The famous case of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company [1893] 2 QB 256 is relevant here. A medical firm advertised that its new drug, a carbolic smoke ball, would cure flu, and if it did not, buyers would receive £100. When sued, Carbolic argued the advert was not to be taken as a legally binding offer; it was merely an invitation to treat, a mere puff or gimmick. However, the Court of Appeal held that the advertisement was an offer. An intention to be bound could be inferred from the statement that the advertisers had deposited £1,000 in their bank "shewing our sincerity". B. ACCEPTANCE 9. An acceptance is a final and unqualified expression of assent to the terms of an offer. Again, there must be an objective manifestation, by the recipient of the offer, of an intention to be bound by its terms. An offer must be accepted in accordance with its precise terms if it is to form an agreement. It must exactly match the offer and ALL terms must be accepted. 10. An offer may be accepted by conduct (for example, an offer to buy goods can be accepted by sending them to the offeror). 11. Acceptance has no legal effect until it is communicated to the offeror (because it could cause hardship to the offeror to be bound without knowing that his offer had been accepted). The general rule is that a postal acceptance takes effect when the letter of acceptance is posted5 (even if the letter may be lost, delayed or destroyed6 ). However, the postal rule will not apply if it is excluded by the express terms of the offer. An offer which requires acceptance to be communicated in a specified way can generally be accepted only in that way. If acceptance occurs via an instantaneous medium such as email, it will take effect at the time and place of receipt.7 Note that an offeror cannot stipulate that the offeree's silence amounts to acceptance. 12. A communication fails to take effect as an acceptance where it attempts to vary the terms of an offer. In such cases it is a counter-offer, which the original offeror can either accept or reject. For example, where the offeror offers to trade on its standard terms and the offeree purports to accept, but on its own standard terms, that represents a counter-offer. Making a counteroffer amounts to a rejection of the original offer which cannot subsequently be restored or accepted (unless the parties agree).8 It is important to distinguish a counter-offer from a mere request for further information regarding the original offer. 13. An offer may be revoked at any time before its acceptance, however the revocation must be communicated to the offeree. Although revocation need 3 Partridge v Crittenden [1968] 1 WLR 1204. 4 Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Boots Cash Chemist (Southern) Ltd [1953] 1 QB 410. 5 Henthorn v Fraser [1892] 2 Ch 27. 6 Adams v Lindsell [1818] 1 B & Ald 681. 7 Entores v Miles Far East Corp [1955] 2 QB 327. 8 Hyde v Wrency [1840] 3 Beav 334. not be communicated by the offeror personally (it can be made by a reliable third party), if it is not communicated, the revocation is ineffective.9 14. Once an offer has been accepted, the parties have an agreement. That is the basis for a contract, but is not sufficient in itself to create legal obligations. C. CONSIDERATION 15. In common law, a promise is not, as a general rule, binding as a contract unless it is supported by consideration (or it is made as a deed). Consideration is "something of value" which is given for a promise and is required in order to make the promise enforceable as a contract. This is traditionally either some detriment to the promisee (in that he may give value) and/or some benefit to the promisor (in that he may receive value). For example, payment by a buyer is consideration for the seller's promise to deliver goods, and delivery of goods is consideration for the buyer's promise to pay. It follows that an informal gratuitous promise does not amount to a contract. Consideration must be sufficient, but need not be adequate 16. Although a promise has no contractual force unless some value has been given for it, consideration need not be adequate. Courts do not, in general ask whether adequate value has been given (in the sense of there being any economic equivalence between the value of the consideration given and the value of any goods or services received). This is because they do not normally interfere with the bargain made between the parties10. Accordingly, nominal consideration is sufficient. Consideration must not be from the past 17. The consideration for a promise must be given in return for the promise. Consideration must move from the promisee 18. The promisee must provide the consideration. Tradditionally, a person to whom a promise was made can enforce it only if he himself provided the consideration for it. He has no such right if the consideration moved from a third party. For example, if A promises B to pay £10,000 to B if C will paint A's house and C does so, B cannot enforce A's promise (unless B had procured or undertaken to procure C to do the work). However, where the conditions of the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 are met, a third party may be able to enforce rights created in his favour by a contract which he was not a party to, and the courts are also adopting a more flexible position under the common law here. 19. While consideration must move from the promisee, it need not move to the promisor. First, consideration may be satisfied where the promisee suffers some detriment at the promisor's request but confers no corresponding benefit on the promisor. For example, the promise to give up tenancy of a flat 9 Byrne v Van Tienhoven [1880] 5 CPD 344. 10 There are a few exceptions, for example, where certain terms of a contract are void either by statute (for example, tenancy agreement) or where common law holds the terms to be so unreasonable that they cannot be enforced and/or are varied by the courts. may be adequate consideration even though no direct benefit results to the promisor. Secondly, consideration may move from the promisee without moving to the promisor where the promisee, at the promisor's request, confers a benefit on a third party. In situations where goods are bought with a credit card, the issuer makes a promise to the supplier that s/he will be paid. The supplier provides consideration for this by providing goods to the customer. D. CONTRACTUAL INTENTION 20. An agreement, even if supported by consideration, is not binding as a contract if it was made without an intention to create legal intentions. That is, the parties must intend their agreement to be legally binding. 21. In the case of ordinary commercial transactions, there is a presumption that the parties intended to create legal relations. The onus of rebutting this presumption is on the party who asserts that no legal effect was intended, and the onus is a heavy one.11 22. Many social arrangements do not amount to contracts because they are not intended to be legally binding. Equally, many domestic arrangements, such as between husband and wife, or between parent and child, lack force because the parties did not intend them to have legal consequences. In Balfour v Balfour [1919] 2 KB 571, a husband who worked abroad promised to pay an allowance of £30 per month to his wife, who was in England. The wife's attempt to enforce this promise failed: the parties did not intend the arrangement to be legally binding. (Note that in addition, the wife had not provided any consideration.) 23. An agreement which is made "subject to contract" (typically, agreements for the sale of land) or a "letter of comfort" is generally unenforceable. The words normally negate any contractual intention, so that the parties are not bound until formal contracts are exchanged. E. FORM 1. The general rule is that contracts can be made informally; most contracts can be formed orally, and in some cases, no oral or written communication at all is needed. Thus, an informal exchange of promises can still be as binding and legally valid as a written contract. There are statutory exceptions to this rule. For example: (i) a lease for more than 3 years must be made by deed: Law of Property Act 1925, ss 52, 54(2); (ii) most contracts for the sale or disposition of an interest in land must be "made in writing": Law of Property (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1989, s 2; (iii) contracts of guarantee are required to be evidenced in writing: Statute of Frauds, s 4. II CONTENTS OF A CONTRACT The terms of a contract can be divided into express terms and implied terms. A. EXPRESS TERMS 11 Edwards v Skyways Ltd [1964] 1 WLR 349. 1. Express terms are ones that the parties have set out in their agreement. 2. The parties may record their agreement, and hence the terms of their contract, in more than one document. Those terms may be incorporated by reference into the contract; (for example, where a contract is made subject to standard terms drawn up by a relevant trading association). Or, a contract may be contained in more than one document even though one does not expressly refer to the other (for example, dealings which take place under a 'master contract' with a separate document being executed every time an individual contract is made). Here, the master contract lays out most of the underlying terms on which the parties are dealing, while certain specific terms – price, times for delivery etc – are covered in individual contracts for each specific trade. Incorporation without express reference depends on the intention of the parties, determined in accordance with the objective test of agreement. 3. Once the express terms have been identified, there is the question of interpretation. The document setting out the parties' agreement must be interpreted objectively: it is not a question of what one party actually intended or what the other party actually understood to have been intended but of what a reasonable person in the position of the parties would have understood the words to mean. The starting point for ascertaining the objective meaning is the words used by the parties. These are interpreted according to their meaning in conventional usage, unless there is something in the background showing that some other meaning would have been conveyed to the reasonable person. Thus, the terms of the contract must be read against the "factual matrix"; that is, the body of facts reasonably available to both parties when they entered the contract.12 4. The "parol evidence" rule provides that evidence cannot be admitted to add to, vary or contradict a written document. Therefore, where a contract has been put in writing, there is a presumption that the writing was intended to include all the terms of the contract, and neither party can rely on extrinsic evidence of terms alleged to have been agreed which are not contained in the document. This presumption is rebuttable, and extrinsic evidence is admissible, if the written document was not intended to set out all the terms on which the parties had agreed. The parol evidence rule prevents a party from relying on extrinsic evidence only about the contents of a contract (and only express terms), and not about its validity (such as the presence or absence of consideration or contractual intention, or where a contract is invalid for a reason such as incapacity). B. IMPLIED TERMS 5. A contract may contain terms which are not expressly stated but which are implied, either because the parties intended this, or by operation of law, or by custom or usage. Terms implied in fact 6. Terms implied in fact are ones which are not expressly set out in the contract, but which the parties must have intended to include. The courts have adopted 12 ICS Ltd v West Bromwich [1998] 1 WLR 896. two tests governing whether a term may be implied. The first is the "officious bystander" test, where a term is so obvious that its inclusion goes without saying, and had an officious bystander asked the parties at the time of contracting whether the term ought to be included, the parties would have replied "Oh, of course".13 In other words, if it can be established that both parties regarded the term as obvious and would have accepted it, had it been put to them at the time of contracting, that should suffice to support the implication of the term in fact. The alternative test for implication is that of "business efficacy", where the contract would be unworkable without the term.14 For example, it has been held that in a contract for the use of a wharf, it was an implied term that it was safe for a ship to lie at the wharf. Under this test, a term will be implied if the contract simply could not work without such a term. It is important to note that the courts will not imply a term merely because it would be reasonable or desirable to do so. Further, a term cannot be implied if it conflicts with the express terms of the contract. Terms implied in law and by statute 7. Terms implied in law are terms imported by operation of law, whether the parties intended to include them or not. For example, in a contract for the sale of goods, it is an implied term that the goods will be of a certain quality and, if sold for a particular purpose, will be fit for that purpose. For certain contracts the law seeks to impose a standardised set of terms as a form of regulation. Many terms which are implied in law have been put into statutory form. For example, a number of important terms are implied into contracts for the sale of goods by ss 12 to 15 of the Sale of Goods Act 1979. 8. Further significant terms may be implied from the nature of the relationship between the parties – for example, contracts for professional services require the professional to act with reasonable standards of competence, a lawyer must act in his client's best interests and a doctor has a duty of confidentiality to his patients. Terms implied by custom or usage 9. Evidence of custom is admissible to add to, but not to contradict, a written contract. Terms may also be implied by trade usage or locality. III THE END OF A CONTRACT – EXPIRATION, TERMINATION, VITIATION, FRUSTRATION 1. There are essentially four ways in which a contract can be brought to an end. A EXPIRATION 2. This refers to a contract which comes to an end in accordance with its terms, either because it has a fixed expiry date or because there is a right to terminate contained in the contract (a contractual right to terminate is distinct from a common law right to terminate for breach, which is discussed below). B TERMINATION 13 Shirlaw v Southern Foundries (1926) Ltd [1939] 2 KB 206, 227 per MacKinnon LJ. 14 The Moorcock [1889] 14 PB 64. (i) Breach 3. A breach of contract is committed when a party, without lawful excuse, fails or refuses to perform what is due from him under the contract, or performs defectively, or incapacitates himself from performing. (a) Failure or refusal to perform – a failure or refusal to perform a contractual promise when performance has fallen due is prima facie a breach. (b) Defective performance – where a person promises to do one thing but does another, which differs, for example, in time, quantity or quality, this amounts to a breach. The effect of such a breach often differs from those of a complete failure or refusal to perform (see below). Note that where the "defect" in performance is particularly serious, the breach may amount to non-performance rather than defective performance (for example, if a seller promises beans but delivers peas). (c) Incapacitating oneself – for example, a seller commits a breach of contract for the sale of a specific thing if he sells it to a third party. (ii) Anticipatory Breach 4. An anticipatory breach occurs when, before performance is due, a party either repudiates the contract or disables himself from performing it. (a) Repudiation – clear and absolute refusal to perform, which includes conduct showing the party is unwilling, even though he may be able, to perform. (b) Disablement – for example, where a party disposes elsewhere of the specific thing which forms the subject matter of the contract. Where one party commits an anticipatory breach, the other can elect to: (i) keep the contract alive by continuing to press for performance (in which case the anticipatory breach will have the same effect as an actual breach); or (ii) "accept" the breach (in which case he has a right to damages and termination, discussed below). 5. If the injured party does not accept the breach, he remains liable to perform and retains the right to enforce the other party's primary obligations. However, it must be borne in mind that the effect of one party's breach may mean that it prevents the other party from performing his continuing obligations. Affirmation does not prevent the injured party from terminating the contract on account of a later actual breach. 6. If the injured party does accept the breach, acceptance must be complete and unequivocal and he should make it plain that he is treating the contract as at an end. A breach can be accepted by bringing an action for damages, or by giving notice of intention to accept it to the party in breach. 7. Acceptance of the breach entitles the injured party to claim damages at once (before the time fixed for performance).15 As with an actual breach, an anticipatory breach can also give rise to a right to terminate. This right arises immediately, if the prospective effects of the anticipatory breach are such as to satisfy the requirement of substantial failure in performance. (iii) Termination for Breach 8. Termination is the remedy by which one party (the injured party) is released from his obligation to perform because of the other party's defective or nonperformance. A breach gives the injured party the option to terminate the contract or to affirm it and claim further performance. Termination depends on the injured party's election because the guilty party should not be allowed to rely on his own breach of duty to the other party in order to get out of the contract. The injured party must unequivocally indicate his intention to terminate such as by giving notice to this effect to the party in breach or by commencing proceedings. He must terminate the contract as a whole. And, if the injured party accepts further performance after breach, he may be held to have affirmed, so that he cannot later terminate the contract. After termination, the injured party is no longer bound to accept or pay for further performance. However, termination does not release the injured party from his duty to perform obligations which accrued before termination. If the injured party fails to exercise his option to terminate, or positively affirms the contract, the contract remains in force and each party is bound to perform his obligations when that performance falls due. 9. At law, the right to terminate for breach arises in three situations: (a) repudiation – where a party evinces a clear and absolute refusal to perform; (b) impossibility – where a party disables himself from performing; (c) substantial failure to perform. Any defect in performance must attain a certain minimum degree of seriousness to entitle the injured party to terminate. A failure in performance is "substantial" when it deprives the party of what he bargained for or when it "goes to the root" of the contract. For less serious breaches, a right to damages may arise, but not a right to terminate. 10. It should be noted that bringing proceedings for breach of contract does not necessarily amount to termination of that contract. It may be that the claimant is seeking damages alone and/or the contract may contain specified formalities to be met before termination can occur. C VITIATION 11. There are situations where the parties have reached agreement but the question arises whether the existence or non-existence of some fact, or the occurrence or non-occurrence of some event, has destroyed the basis on which that agreement was reached so that the agreement is discharged or in some other way vitiated. 15 Hochster v De la Tour (1853) 2 E. & B. 678. (i) Misrepresentation 12. A misrepresentation is a false statement16 of fact made by one party to another, which, whilst not a term of the contract, induces the other party to enter into the contract. An actionable misrepresentation must be a false statement of fact, not of opinion or future intention or law. Silence does not normally amount to misrepresentation. However, the representor must not misleadingly tell only part of the truth. Thus, a statement that does not present the whole truth may be a misrepresentation. Where a statement was true when it was made but due to a change of circumstances becomes false, there is a duty to disclose the change.17 13. A misrepresentation may be: (i) Fraudulent- made knowingly, without belief in its truth or recklessly; (ii) Negligent- made by a person who had no reasonable grounds to believe that it was true; or (iii) Innocent- made in the wholly innocent belief that it was true. 14. The misrepresentation must have induced, at least partly, the party to enter into the contract and must have been relied on to at least some degree by the person to whom it was made. If that person in fact relies on his own judgments or investigations, or simply ignores the misprepresentation, then it cannot give rise to an action against the person who made the misrepresentation. 15. There are multiple remedies available once misrepresentation has been proved: (i) Rescission- This sets aside the contract and primarily aims to put the parties back in their original position as if the contract had never been made. Rescission can be sought for all cases of misrepresentation. However, this is a discretionary remedy – meaning that the courts will not always allow a party to rescind - and the injured party may lose the right to rescind if: a) he has already affirmed the contract; b) he does not act to rescind in a reasonable time; c) it is or becomes impossible to return the parties back to their original position; or d) a third party has acquired legal rights as a result of the original contract. (ii) Indemnity- The court may order payment for expenses necessarily incurred in complying with the terms of the contract. (iii) Damages- This remedy varies according to the type of misrepresentation. In fraudulent misrepresentation cases there is an automatic right to damages, in negligent cases the injured party may claim damages under common law or under the Misrepresentation Act 1967 s2(1). In situations of innocent misrepresentation, the court has discretion whether to award damages and may opt to award damages in lieu of rescission. Damages are discussed further below. 16 For these purposes, a course of conduct may amount to a representation. 17 With v O'Flanagan [1936] Ch 575. (ii) Mistake 16. A contract may be void or voidable if mistake has occurred. If a contract is void, then it is so 'ab initio' (from the beginning), as if the contract was never made. In such cases, no obligations will arise under it. Alternatively, if the contract is voidable, the contract will have been valid from the start and obligations may arise under it despite the mistake. 17. Mistake can be classified into different forms: (i) Common Mistake- A common mistake is one where both parties make the same error relating to a fundamental fact. For example, a contract will be void at common law if the subject of the contract no longer exists – e.g. a contract for the sale of specific goods where those goods have already perished. Similarly, the contract will be void if the buyer makes a contract to buy something that in fact already belongs to him. (ii) Unilateral Mistake-This occurs when only one party is mistaken. This includes mistake as to the terms of the contract or mistake as to the identity of the parties. A mistake as to terms will make a contract void. (iii) Mutual Mistake- A mutual mistake is one where both parties fail to understand each other. (iv) A mistake as to the quality of what is being contracted for – only in extreme cases of such a mistake will the contract be void. It must be a mistake "which makes the thing without the quality essentially different from the thing as it was believed to be". D FRUSTRATION 18. Under the doctrine of frustration, a contract may be discharged if, after its formation, an unforeseen event occurs which makes performance of the contract impossible, illegal or essentially different from what was contemplated. A good example is Avery v Bowden18, in which a ship was supposed to pick up some cargo at Odessa. With the outbreak of the Crimean War, the government made it illegal to load cargo at an enemy port, so the ship could not perform its contract without breaking the law. The contract was therefore frustrated. Frustration will not occur where the frustrating event was caused by the fault of one party. Equally, frustration will not occur where the parties made express provision for the event in their contract (such as in a force majeure clause). The doctrine cannot be invoked lightly, and cannot allow a party to escape from a bad bargain. 19. The position at common law is that frustration discharges the parties only from duties of future performance. Rights accrued before the frustrating event therefore remain enforceable but those which have not yet accrued do not arise. This may cause hardship, as exemplified in Chandler v Webster. 19 Here money for hire of a room for the King's coronation was due in advance. Not 18 (1855) 5 E & B 714. 19 [1904] 1 K.B. 493. all the monies had been paid when the coronation was postponed, but the hirer was still liable to pay the full amount. The payment had fallen due before the frustrating event. 20. The Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943 was enacted to remedy this defect. Under the Act, sums paid before that date are recoverable; sums due after that date cease to be payable. Where there has been partial performance, the performing party may be able to recover its expenses incurred in carrying out, or preparing to carry out, that performance. VI DAMAGES / REMEDIES 1. Damages are intended to compensate the injured party for the loss that he has suffered as a result of the breach of contract. In order to establish an entitlement to substantial damages for breach of contract, the injured party must show that: (i) actual loss has been caused by the breach; (ii) the type of loss is recognised as giving an entitlement to compensation; and (iii) the loss is not too remote. A breach of contract can be established even if there is no actual loss but in that case, there will be an entitlement to only nominal damages. The underlying principle is to put the injured party financially, as near as possible, into the position he would have been in had the promise been fulfilled. As a general rule, damages are based in loss to the claimant not gain to the defendant. In other words, damages are designed to compensate for an established loss and not to provide a gratuitous benefit to the aggrieved party. 2. Damages may sometimes be an inadequate remedy. There are a number of equitable remedies, which are discretionary, directed at ensuring that the injured party is not unjustly treated by being confined to the common law remedy of damages. For example: (i) Specific Performance Where damages are deemed inadequate, the court may make an order for specific performance which will compel the party in breach to fulfil the terms of a contract. The court "will only grant specific performance if, under all the circumstances, it is just and equitable to do so."20 Specific performance may be refused if the claimant has acted unjustly or unfairly on the basis that the claimant must come to equity with "clean hands". (ii) Injunction A court may restrain a party from committing a breach of contract by injunction. Such injunctions may be "interlocutory" ones which are designed 20 Stickney v Keeble [1915] AC 386. to regulate the position of the parties pending a full hearing of a dispute or permanent. Further, an injunction (whether interlocutory or permanent) may be "prohibitory" ordering a defendant not to do something in breach of contract or "mandatory" requiring a defendant to reverse the effects of an existing breach. An injunction will not normally be granted if the effect is to directly or indirectly compel the defendant to do acts for which the plaintiff could not have obtained an order for specific performance. 

Wednesday, October 6, 2021


 

Town Hall Meeting with Traditional Leaders, Security Agency , Civil Society Organization and Representative of UK. On Community Policing Programme NPP. at Kano State Nigeria


 

SAY NO TO GENDER BASE VIOLANCE


 

Saturday, October 2, 2021

Nigeria @61: FULL TEXT of Buhari's Independence Day speech President Muhammadu Buhari


 

Nigeria @61: FULL TEXT of Buhari's Independence Day speech

President Muhammadu Buhari

INDEPENDENCE DAY ADDRESS BY HIS EXCELLENCY, MUHAMMADU BUHARI, PRESIDENT OF THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA ON THE OCCASION OF NIGERIA’S SIXTY-FIRST INDEPENDENCE ANNIVERSARY, FRIDAY 1ST OCTOBER, 2021.


Citizens of Nigeria.


It is with full gratitude to God that today, we celebrate Nigeria’s sixty-first Independence Anniversary.



For 1st of October 1960 to happen, all hands were on deck. East, West, North all came together to celebrate freedom. Today should not only serve as a reminder of the day the British handed over the reins of power to Nigerians, but also unified Nigerians from all ethnic groups, religions and regions.

Today, despite the challenges we face, most Nigerians still maintain the spirit of 1st October. That positive outlook and determination to make Nigeria a peaceful and prosperous nation. It is due to this collective attitude that Nigeria doggedly continues to remain a united and indivisible nation.

Fellow Nigerians, the past eighteen months have been some of the most difficult periods in the history of Nigeria. Since the civil war, I doubt whether we have seen a period of more heightened challenges than what we have witnessed in this period.

Our original priorities for 2020 were to continue stabilising our economy following the deep recession while restoring peace in areas confronted with security challenges. But the COVID-19 pandemic and its devastating impact on all nations meant we needed to shift gears and re-strategise.

Nigerians came together as one to fight against COVID-19. It is this attitude and by the special grace of God, we continue to survive the pandemic as a nation and indeed, provide leadership and example at regional and international levels.

The doomsday scenario predicted for our country never came. Even as the Delta variant continues to spread, we have built the capacity we need to respond now and into the future.

I will therefore appeal to Nigerians not to take COVID lightly, adhere to public health and social measures, put your mask on and get vaccinated. We can control this pandemic, but it requires effort on everybody’s part. The investments we made in response to COVID-19 will also serve our country to tackle any future disease outbreaks or pandemics.

Despite the global inequity in access to vaccines, the Government of Nigeria has continued to explore all available options to ensure Nigerians have free access to safe and effective vaccines.

Some five million vaccine doses have been administered to Nigerians through efforts led by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency and we will continue to explore options for purchase or acquisition of vaccines such as through COVAX and the African Vaccine Acquisition Trust.

I will take this opportunity to remind the global community that the current state of access to COVID-19 vaccines is unacceptable. We cannot afford a situation where a handful of countries keep the global vaccine supply to themselves at the expense of other nations.

We must act now to accelerate equitable distribution of COVID-19 vaccines. This is the message I conveyed to the international community in New York last week.

As we push to source vaccines for our immediate needs, we shall invest more to support our pharmaceutical and research agencies to come up with ideas for locally developed vaccines. Should another pandemic arise in the future, Our question is simple; will Nigeria be ready?

Accordingly, I have directed the Ministries of Finance, Budget and National Planning, Health, Education and Science and Technology to work with Nigerian and International pharmaceutical companies and research organisations to enhance Nigeria’s domestic pharmaceutical capacity.

Already, the Nigerian Sovereign Investment Authority is raising a $200 million fund for this initiative that will complement the Central Bank of Nigeria’s ongoing N85 billion Healthcare Sector Research and Development Intervention Scheme to support local researchers in the development of vaccines and drugs to combat communicable and non-communicable diseases, including COVID-19.

Fellow Nigerians, this is just the beginning.


Similarly, on our approach to food security, I am proud to announce Nigeria has commenced its journey to pharmaceutical independence.

This journey, which will take years to achieve but will ultimately result in Nigerian based companies developing the Active Pharmaceutical substances and competence needed for us to make our own drugs and vaccines.

Fellow Nigerians,




As our economy continues to open after the COVID-19 related lockdowns, we have also seen the resurgence of insecurity in certain parts of the country.

In the last four months, the gallant men and women of the Military and Security Agencies have made tremendous progress in addressing these new security challenges. We are taking the fight to our enemies from all angles and we are winning.

Earlier this year, I launched the Integrated National Security and Waterways Protection Infrastructure, the Deep Blue Project, which is designed to secure Nigerian waters up to the Gulf of Guinea. I am happy to inform Nigerians that we have taken delivery of key assets for this project and very soon, its impact will be felt.

In the North East region alone, over eight thousand Boko Haram terrorists have surrendered.

To support our surge approach to fighting banditry, the Nigerian Armed Forces have recruited over 17,000 personnel across all ranks. Furthermore, I have also approved for the Nigerian Police Force to recruit 10,000 police officers annually over the next six years.

I am also pleased to note that most of the Air Force platforms we acquired over the past three years have started to arrive in Nigeria. These will positively impact our security operations in all parts of the country.

In line with section 14(2)(b) of the 1999 Constitution (as amended), the security and welfare of Nigerians continue to be the prime focus on which programmes and projects of our government revolves.

Therefore, as a Government, we are ready to arrest and prosecute all persons inciting violence through words or action. Our resolve for a peaceful, united and one Nigeria remains resolute and unwavering.

That said, our hope is not to fight for peace. We can always settle our grievances peacefully without spilling any blood.

I will therefore take this opportunity, on this special day that symbolises the unity and oneness of our great nation, to ask all Nigerians to embrace peace and dialogue, whatever your grievances.

The seeds of violence are planted in people’s heads through words. Reckless utterances of a few have led to losses of many innocent lives and destruction of properties.

Such unfiltered and unsubstantiated lies and hate speeches by a few evil persons must be stopped. Our media houses and commentators must move away from just reporting irresponsible remarks to investigating the truth behind all statements and presenting the facts to readers.

We must all come out and speak against the lies being peddled. At this point, I would want to sincerely appreciate the large number of our Traditional, Religious and Community leaders as well as other well-meaning Nigerians who, in their various fora are openly spreading the message of peaceful co-existence and conflict settlement through dialogue in their respective communities.

Nigeria is for all of us. Its unity is not negotiable. And its ultimate success can only be achieved if we all come together with a common goal of having peace and prosperity for our nation.

We shall continue to work on dialogue based solutions to address legitimate grievances. But we remain ready to take decisive actions against secessionist agitators and their sponsors who threaten our national security.

The recent arrests of Nnamdi Kanu and Sunday Adeyemo, and the ongoing investigations being conducted have revealed certain high-profile financiers behind these individuals. We are vigorously pursuing these financiers including one identified as a serving member of the national assembly.

Fellow Nigerians,


This is a clear example of how people abandon their national leadership positions for their selfish gains. Instead of preaching unity, they are funding and misleading our youth to conduct criminal acts that sometimes lead to unfortunate and unnecessary loss of lives and property.

As the so-called leaders run abroad to hide, our innocent youths are misled and left in the streets to fight for their senseless and destructive causes.

Government will continue, with greater level of peoples’ participation and in collaboration with our international partners, to improve the security architecture, reduce enabling environment for criminality to thrive and eliminate opportunities for terrorism financing.

Fellow Nigerians, our unrelenting effort at resolving an almost two-decade stalling on the management of our Petroleum resources and ensuring equitable consideration to our host communities has resulted in the enactment of the Petroleum Industry Act, 2021.

This Act not only overhauls the Institutional, regulatory and fiscal framework of the Petroleum Industry but also reduces the previous opacity associated with this sector.

This is the first step to the reforms as the process is a continuous one. Already, to further improve the governance framework, I have sought for an amendment of sections 11(2)(b) and 34(2)(b). We will also continue to review and amend as appropriate.

At this juncture, it is very appropriate that I salute the leadership and members of the Ninth Assembly for their patriotism, dedication to duty, candour and most importantly the dispatch with which they have enacted legacy legislations for this nation. I do not take such level of cooperation for granted and hope it continues for the overall efficiency of the Federal machinery.

Nigeria’s Roadmap on Local Refining is on track with the Commissioning of a Modular refinery in Imo State.

A second is scheduled for commissioning by the end of this year in Edo State and the third one in Bayelsa State by 2022.

In addition to the modular projects, we also have the two mega refinery projects coming up in Lagos and Akwa Ibom States.

As these refineries are commissioned, more employment opportunities are created and there would be increased petroleum products available for local consumption which will significantly reduce our reliance on importation.

In further demonstrating our plan to reduce our dependence on oil and tapping from our enormous gas resources, this administration remains committed to the “Decade of Gas” Initiative, which is aimed at bringing to focus the utilization of our huge gas resources.

Already, we are supporting and promoting various gas-based projects including NLNG Train 7 and the mega urea and ammonia projects in the South-South region.

As we continue to optimise and enhance our oil and gas sector, I am also proud and delighted to state that our economic diversification strategy remains on course with the persistent increase in Non-Oil Sector contribution to GDP.

We recovered from economic recession in quarter four of 2020 with a GDP growth rate of 0.11%, and grew by 0.51% and 5.01% in real terms in the first and second quarters of 2021.

The Agricultural sector remains key to our economic diversification efforts as the sector has been a consistent driver of the non-oil sector contributing 22.35% and 23.78% to the overall GDP in the first and second quarter of 2021.

We have seen significant private sector investments in almost all areas of the agricultural value chain. And these have continued even during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Unfortunately, as our food production capacity has increased, food prices have been going up due to artificial shortages created by middlemen who have been buying and hoarding these essential commodities for profiteering.

To address this, I am hereby directing the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development to rehabilitate the National Food Reserve Agency and also work with security agencies, the Nigerian Commodity Exchange, and the National Assembly to find a lasting solution to these disruptive and unpatriotic hoarding activities.

To further enhance food production, we have completed several new dams and are in the process of rehabilitating several River Basin Development Authorities to enhance ground water supply for rainfed agriculture as well as surface water for irrigation agriculture.

The water projects we completed between 2015 to 2020 have improved Nigerian’s access to potable water to 71% between 2015 and 2020. This means 12.5 million additional Nigerians now have direct access to potable water.

Fellow Nigerians,


This Government remains concerned by the significant transportation infrastructure deficit we have. Addressing the challenges our commuters and lorry drivers face on the motorways is still a high priority to us.

To complement our budgetary allocations, the Presidential Infrastructure Development Fund and the Road Infrastructure Development and Refurbishment Investment Tax Credit Scheme, we recently established a N15trillion Infrastructural Corporation of Nigeria Limited (INFRACO), which is expected to begin operation by the fourth quarter of this year.

INFRACO will also focus on leveraging resources on a public-private sector basis for infrastructural development in Nigeria.

We hope through these innovative programs, the additional cost burden on individuals and businesses because of inefficient logistics operations will be reduced and ultimately, eliminated.

We currently have over 13,000 kilometres of roads and bridges under construction all over the country of which a fair percentage have been completed.

As we fix our roads, we also continue to extend and upgrade Nigeria’s railway network with the notable opening of the Warri- Itakpe standard gauge rail line.

To increase capacity, we have introduced more locomotives, coaches and wagons including the establishment of a Wagon Assembly in Kajola, Ogun State.

The sea ports however still remain problematic. The effect of our various interventions to reduce the gridlocks and inefficiencies have been slower than expected.

However, the implementation of the Electronic Call-Up System as well as the conversion of the Lillypond Container Terminal to a Vehicle Transit Area will further enhance the ease of cargo evacuation.

Our prioritisation of developing Nigeria’s Digital Economy has positively impacted the contribution of the ICT sector to our GDP.

We hope our present efforts to ensure all Nigerians use a National Identification Number as well as our planned roll-out of the fifth generation (5G) network technology will ensure we stay in line with the global innovation curve as a Nation.

As we embrace the digital economy in Nigeria, we are fully aware of the prospects and the perils. Our policies have been developed to enable Nigerians to take advantage of the prospects and avoid the perils of digital technologies.

Social media is a very useful platform that has enabled millions of Nigerians to connect with loved ones, promote their businesses, socialise, and access news and other information.

However, recent events have shown that the platform is not just an innocuous platform for information dissemination.

Rather some users have misused the platform to organise, coordinate, and execute criminal activities, propagate fake news, and promote ethnic and religious sentiments.

To address these negative trends, the Federal Government of Nigeria suspended the operations of Twitter in Nigeria on June 5, 2021 to allow the Government put measures in place to address these challenges.

Following the suspension of Twitter operations, Twitter Inc. reached out to the Federal Government of Nigeria to resolve the impasse. Subsequently, I constituted a Presidential Committee to engage Twitter to explore the possibility of resolving the issue.

The Committee, along with its Technical Team, has engaged with Twitter and have addressed a number of key issues. These are:

a. National Security and Cohesion;


b. Registration, Physical presence and Representation;


c. Fair Taxation;


d. Dispute Resolution; and


e. Local Content.


Following the extensive engagements, the issues are being addressed and I have directed that the suspension be lifted but only if the conditions are met to allow our citizens continue the use of the platform for business and positive engagements.

As a country, we are committed to ensuring that digital companies use their platform to enhance the lives of our citizens, respect Nigeria’s sovereignty, cultural values and promote online safety.

Nigeria’s progressive diplomacy continues to manifest through growing numbers of highly placed Nigerians in positions of regional and global influences. Very recently, Nigeria won election for the position of Commissioner for the expanded Political, Peace and Security Affairs of the African Union.

Our persistent calls for a reorganized and reformed ECOWAS, to make the organization citizens-sensitive, paid off with the acceptance by the Authority of Heads of State and Governments of ECOWAS to commence the agreed reforms in the organization ahead of the next elections of the organization’s principal officers in December this year.

At the African Development Bank, World Trade Organization and indeed, the United Nations, footprints of Nigeria’s Diplomacy are clearly evident.

We remain confident that our goal of lifting 100million Nigerians out of poverty in 10 years is achievable.

Considering the positive impact of our Social Investment Programs, I recently approved an increase in the number of N-Power program beneficiaries from 500,000 to 1,000,000.

Out of this, 510,000 have started the programme while the competitive selection process for onboarding the outstanding 490,000 beneficiaries is in progress.

The National Home-Grown School Feeding Programme is currently being implemented in 35 States of the Federation and the FCT. Over 103,000 women have been engaged and empowered as cooks under the programme, while about 10 million pupils are being fed across public primary schools in the country.

To grant increased access to credit to the most poor and vulnerable, I have directed an increase in the disbursement of Government Enterprise and Empowerment Programme loans to an additional one million beneficiaries laying more emphasis on the smallholding farmers through the farmers Moni program.

Fellow Nigerians,


For far too long we have neglected the centrality of the civil service as the engine of governance and this has manifested in ineffective service delivery.

There is widespread discontent and disillusion about the efficiency and probity of our civil service.

It is for this reason that we are refocusing the Nigerian Civil Service to provide World class service to run our country.

The youths of this great country remain propellants for our today and provide guarantees that we would have a secure tomorrow.

It is for this reason that I remain focused on expanding opportunities for their participation in politics and governance.

Recent appointments of young people into positions of authority and their track record so far, gives me confidence that we need to bring more of them into governance and this I promise to do.

More specifically, to encourage Girl-Child Education, female scholarship schemes, life skills and digital literacy skills to boost girl’s enrolment, retention and completion of schooling, are all initiatives put in place to ensure gender balance in appropriately positioning our youths for positions of leadership.

The commitment of this Administration to the well-being of people living with disabilities remains unwavering.

Government recognises their contributions to development and I have, in this regard, directed that all relevant Government Agencies pay special attention to the peculiarities of different abilities in the implementation of policies and programmes.

Rape and Gender Based Violence remains a sore point in our Nation as in many countries worldwide and this was worsened during and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.

We are currently engaging Heads of Courts to establish Specialised Courts for the speedy and seamless trial of Rape/Gender-Based offences especially to ensure that justice is done for child victims of sexual violence.

On the other hand, work has advanced in the reformation, reintegration and reunification of Minors involved in one crime or the other.

The reformation in our Correctional Services has manifested in an increase in modernised custodial centres and a transformation from strictly punitive to attitudinal changes so that criminals do not relapse into their previous lifestyle.

As we begin to celebrate our sixty one years as a Nation, we need to be conscious that Nigeria does not start and end with the Federal Government. This country is a great collective where Government at all arms and levels as well as the private sector, and more importantly individuals, have a role to play.

In particular, security is a bottom to top undertaking. Joining hands and hearts together would enable us to secure ourselves and our country.

I fully understand the anxiety of many Nigerians on the inability of this country to go beyond a never-ending potential for becoming a great nation to an actually great one.

A lot has been achieved in the last six years on many fronts: in infrastructure, social care, governance, Nigeria’s image and influence in Africa and the international community.

But critics misdiagnose incremental progress as stagnation. Since coming to power, this Administration has tackled our problems head-on in spite of the meagre resources. No government since 1999 has done what we have done in six years to put Nigeria back on track.

We shall continue to serve the country: listen to all and protect our democracy and country.

Thank you all and God bless the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Friday, October 1, 2021

On this day, I congratulate anyone who calls himself a Nigerian and lives on this glorious land, regardless of the language you speak and what traditions you follow

 


On this day, I congratulate anyone who calls himself a Nigerian and lives on this glorious land, regardless of the language you speak and what traditions you follow. May you be independent in your thoughts and in your deeds, in order to create a blossoming paradise that future generations will be proud of. Happy Independence Day,  By Comrade AA Haruna Ayagi , Executive Director of Human Rights Network Nigeria

@Human Rights Network Nigeria

Thursday, September 30, 2021

Nigeria Independence Day (1 October 1960)

 



October 1st 2021: Happy Nigeria Independence Day, @Nigeria 61st

Nigeria Independence Day (1 October 1960) is an official national holiday in Nigeria, celebrated on the first of October. It marks Nigeria’s proclamation of independence from British rule on 1 October 1960. So for this reason, Nigeria celebrates its independence on 1 October every year.



Let’s not take our independence for granted. Let’s do our part in making Nigeria a better place.


We celebrate the bravery of our fathers and their gift of freedom. Long may we wave our flag!


May the Pride and Glory of being Nigerian remain in your heart forever… Happy Independence Day!


May the Nigerian green flag always fly high… Warm wishes on this grand occasion of Independence Day!


Freedom in the mind, pride in our souls, faith in the words. Let’s salute the nation on this auspicious day!


Let us celebrate the glory of Free Nigeria and uphold the Pride and Honor of being a Nigerian. Happy Independence Day!


Let us remember and honor the patriotism of the people who gave lives to free Nigeria. Happy Independence Day!


It is a day to pay tribute to all those who became the reason of this land’s freedom. Happy Independence Day.


Nigeria Independence Day

We are proud to be a part of our glorious nation… And we hoist the green flag high… Sending you warm wishes… on Happy Independence Day!


I wish you a happy Independence Day! May our country progress in everything, so that the whole world is proud of us.


Independence is one of the most precious gifts from God. May we always remain independent. Wishing you a happy and safe Independence Day!

As Nigeria completes another glorious year of her Independence… Here’s wishing you a Happy Independence Day… To all proud Nigerians.


Thousands laid their lives down so that our country could breathe on this day. Never forget their sacrifice. Happy Independence Day to you all.


From Struggle… To Freedom… To Progress… Nigeria moves forward. Celebrating with you the pride of being part of a nation that is eternal and ever-new… Happy Independence Day!


Our free life today is the result of 60 years of struggle and sacrifice of many thousands… Big Salute to those great lives. Happy Independence Day!


Let us pay homage to all the brave hearts… Who gave their life for the next generation… We are proud to be Nigerians… Happy Independence Day!

It makes my heart beat with pride to see the colours of Independence Day spreading happiness and great joy all around. Happy Independence Day!


 Let’s celebrate a peaceful life in our country by remembering all national heroes who have given us our freedom! Have a great Independence Day!


May there be peace and prosperity, and may we rejoice in the blessings that our country has given us. Happy Independence Day to you all!


Let us rejoice in happiness and indulge in celebration… Saluting them who made it possible… Who made Nigeria stand high and mighty. Let us make them our inspiration. Happy Independence Day!


Today marks the date when the dream of our great-grandfathers for freedom became a reality. I wish all the Nigerian people good health, strong spirit and confidence in a brighter future.


One should not be proud of being a Nigerian just on Independence Day. The feeling of being a proud Nigerian should be in your mind always. Sending you the warmest wishes on this wonderful Independence Day.


On this day, we remember all the grief and suffering that Nigerians had to endure to achieve the long-awaited freedom, independence, and sovereignty of our country. I congratulate all the inhabitants of this beautiful country – Nigeria. May joy, love, smile, luck and peace continue to thrive in our homeland.


On this day, we remember all the grief and suffering that we had to endure to achieve the long-awaited freedom, independence, and sovereignty of our country. I congratulate all the inhabitants of this beautiful country and I wish you joy, love and prosperity. I pray that peace continue to thrive in our homeland.


Our Independence Day is more than just a holiday. It is a day to remind ourselves of how far we have come and how much we have done. It is a day of unity and togetherness. It is the day we put aside hostilities and come together as one big, unified family. Today is truly a special day for the nation. Happy Independence Day, Nigeria


Our beloved country Nigeria marks her 61th Independence Day celebration today October 1st, 2021 got your back and will help you in sending congratulatory messages to your friends, family, loved ones and every citizen in celebrating Nigeria’s Jubilee Independence – “Happy Independence Day Nigeria 2021!”


1. May you be independent in your thoughts and in your deeds, in order to create a blossoming paradise that future generations will be proud of. Happy Independence Day, Nigeria!


2. On this day, we remember all the grief and suffering that Nigerians had to endure to achieve the long-awaited freedom, independence, and sovereignty of our country. I congratulate all the inhabitants of this beautiful country – Nigeria. May joy, love, smile, luck and peace continue to thrive in our homeland.


3. Today is the day Nigeria celebrates its birthday, as an independent, sovereign country. And that is why I want to congratulate all Nigerians on this well-deserved holiday. Progress will always be our portion.


4. Dear Nigerians, today is a big day in our country -it is the celebration of our independence. Accept my sincere congratulations. May our politicians be reasonable, wise and prudent. May the people be law-abiding, active, creative and hardworking. May be build a powerful country together.


5. Today, I celebrate with my Nigerian brothers and sisters on our Independence Day. We are great people that have passed through a lot of struggles to be free. On this day, I wish everyone happiness, fun, laughter, smiles, and a cheerful spirit.


6.  Today marks the date when the dream of our great-grandfathers for freedom became a reality. I wish all the Nigerian people good health, strong spirit and confidence in a brighter future.


7. Our Independence Day is more than just a holiday. It is a day to remind ourselves of how far we have come and how much we have done. It is a day of unity and togetherness. It is the day we put aside hostilities and come together as one big, unified family. Today is truly a special day for the nation. Happy Independence Day, Nigeria.


8. We fought for the independence and sovereignty of our home. The feeling of freedom fills my heart with so much satisfaction and pride, I can’t be more thankful to everyone who participated in this battle for freedom. Happy Independence Day!


9. Sovereignty of our nation has always been very important to every single one of us. Let’s celebrate this Independence Day and raise our glasses for everyone who has fought for it. Cheers!


10. A human being cannot live without freedom. We earned the right to be free and prosperous, to call this country our home. Let’s always remember everyone who fought for our peace. Happy Independence Day!


11. Today we celebrate every citizen of our country. You made our independence possible. You made this amazing life possible. Thank you for always caring for the future of our nation. Happy Independence Day!


12. Independence Day is an amazing opportunity to remind ourselves how hard we’ve worked for it. Through blood and tears, we fought for our freedom. We made our dreams a reality. Cheers to another year of independence!


13. From all of my heart I want to congratulate all people with this wonderful day. It‘s a big day for our country. Wish the best Independence Day!


14. Let’s salute our martyrs for the sacrifices they made and appreciate them for giving us today. Happy independence!


15. Independence is a special and precious gift of God. May our lives always remain independent, happy Independence Day.


16. As you celebrate this day, always have it in mind that no nation is perfect and it can only be made perfect by me and you. Happy independence, proud to be a citizen!


17. Let’s raise our hands and celebrate this day, let’s stand up so high to show respect for the great ones who died for our independence, let’s sing our national anthem with flags in hand and celebrate this wonderful day!


18. Today is the day, that our nation sings aloud, this is the day, that our liberty bells rings aloud, this is the day we shall start to remember what we truly stands for and celebrate our independence. Happy Independence Day.


19. Some people say that this day is not to be celebrated, but I often ask myself why. It’s a day which resembles a lot of happiness, because on this day we became and independent country! Happy Independence Day!


20. Being independent was the best thing that could have happened to our country. Without the final battle, we wouldn’t exist at all. That is why I’m so grateful it happened. Have a happy Independence Day!


21. Let us rejoice in happiness and indulge in celebration… Saluting them who made it possible… Who made our country stand high and mighty. Let us make them our inspiration. Happy Independence Day!


22. Freedom is priceless; you can never buy it anywhere. Remember that the freedom you enjoy now was as a result of all the fights, hustles and struggles of many of our lost soldiers. Let us remember them and pray for their souls during this Independence Day. Happy Independence Day.


23. As our flag flies free in the wind today, please take a moment to savour truly what freedom is; and at what cost it came. Happy Independence Day.


24. The struggles by our heroes for independence has not ended. We can contribute our Quota by striving for prosperity and betterment of this great country. Have a blissful independence celebration.


25. If a man takes away someone’s freedom, he no longer has his freedom as well. We need to unite and fight against people who think they have the right to own other people’s lives. Happy Independence Day! Let’s all celebrate the great Freedom!


26. Let the spirit of patriotism glow in you. Let the spirit of a true fighter reflect in all that you do. Let us remain patient and tolerant. We should stop the unnecessary killing and maiming of another. Our country is delicate and special and we need to do all we can to ensure that we keep our country sane. Happy Independence Day.


27. Other might have forgotten, But never can i,The Flag of my country Furls very high, Happy Independence day..


28. My love for my nation is worthiness. My love for my people is endless. All I desire for my country is happiness. Let me be the first person to wish you a special happy Independence Day!


29. We are proud to be part of a glorious nation… And we hoist the flag high… Sending you warm wishes… on Happy Independence Day!


30. Independence a precious gift from God. May we always remain independent.. Wishing you a safe and happy Independence Day!


31. On this day, we remember all the grief and suffering that we had to endure to achieve the long-awaited freedom, independence, and sovereignty of our country. I congratulate all the inhabitants of this beautiful country and I wish you joy, love and prosperity. I pray that peace continue to thrive in our homeland.


32. Here’s wishing you and your family the best the nation has to offer as we celebrate our country’s independence!


34. I am pleased and honored to be a part of this peaceful and free nation. Wishing everyone a safe and happy Independence Day celebration.


35. Each time I remember those who laid down their lives for this day of freedom we are celebrating, tears roll down my cheeks. I wish they were alive today to see how the country is progressing toward greatness.


36. This day means life without boundaries and limits. It’s our freedom day, our Independence Day! I wish you the very best this day. Time to celebrate!


37. Today, I celebrate with my brothers and sisters on our Independence Day. We are great people that have passed through a lot of struggles to be free. On this day, I wish everyone happiness, fun, laughter, smiles, and a cheerful spirit.


38. Today marks the date when the dream of our great-grandfathers for freedom became a reality. I wish the citizens of this great nation good health, strong spirit and confidence in a brighter future.


39. On this special day here’s wishing our dreams of a new tomorrow come true! May your Independence Day day be filled with patriotic spirit!


Happy Independence Day 


1. Empires do not suffer emptiness of purpose at the time of their creation. It is when they have become established that aims are lost and replaced by vague ritual.

Frank Herbert


2. A sense of entitlement is a cancerous thought process that is void of gratitude and can be deadly to relationships, businesses, and even nations.

Steve Maraboli


3. Nations survive and advance with brains, wise policies, and manpower — not through speeches and cheap populist agitation.

4. Perhaps that is the greatest crime of conquest–that a civilization is denied the right to evolve beyond its own embarrassment.

Neal Shusterman


5. It is only barbarous nations who have a sudden growth after a victory

Victor Hugo


6. Even as individuals become families and families become communities, and communities become nations, so eventually must the nations draw together in peace.

Marjorie Watts


7. Nations and governments come and go, but people remain, and therefore people are the ultimate foundation of what is real and worthy.

Bryant McGill


8. The life of nations no less than that of men is lived largely in the imagination.

Enoch Powell


9. Patriotism is, fundamentally, a conviction that a particular country is the best in the world because you were born in it….

George Bernard Shaw


10. If this country is ever demoralized, it will come from trying to live without work.

Abraham Lincoln


11. The propitious smiles of heaven can never be expected on a nation that disregard the eternal rules of order and right which Heaven itself has ordained.

George Washington


12. One person is nothing. Two people are a nation.

Terry Pratchett


13. To keep any great nation up to a high standard of civilization there must be enough superior characters to hold the balance of power, but the very moment the balance of power gets into the hands of second-rate men and women, a decline of that nation is inevitable.

Christian D. Larson


14. For enslaving a nation, just kill the conscientious people, the rest can be bought.

M.F. Moonzajer


15. By the fall of 1918, it was clear that a nation’s prosperity, even its very survival, depended on securing a safe, abundant supply 


@HUMAN RIGHTS NETWORK NIGERIA @2021

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